Bramston, P. (May 1993) Financial Management (Disability Services) Resource Manual. Module 2 of 4 Modules. Commonwealth Department of Health, Housing, Local Government and Community Services
Cocks, Errol & Duffy, Gordon (1993) The Nature and Purposes of Advocacy for People with Disabilities Centre for the Development of Human Resources, Western Australia
Council of Social Service of New South Wales. (1994) Legalities - guidelines for running a community organisation. Graham Wheeler
Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health. (1994) Roles and Responsibilities of Management Committees - A Reference Manual. Disability Employment Services
Council of Social Service of New South Wales. (1997) Incorporation - An Explanation of the Associations Incorporation Act. Graham Wheeler
OBrien, John & Wolfensberger, W. (1979) Standards for Citizen Advocacy Evaluation.(CAPE) Syracuse Test Edition
OBrien, John. (1987) Learning from Citizen Advocacy Programs. (LfCAP) Georgia Advocacy Office
Redfern Legal Centre Publishing (1997) The Law Handbook - your practical guide to the law in New South Wales
Roberts Management Publication. (1997) The Committee Members Handbook. Jean Roberts
Schwartz, David. (1992) Crossing the River: Creating a Conceptual Revolution in Community and Disability Brookline Press. Available from Citizen Advocacy Forum
Schwartz, David. (1997) Who Cares? Rediscovering Community Brookline Press available from Citizen Advocacy Forum
Victorian Council of Social Service. (1991) Community Management Handbook - a guide to community management for community organisations.
Wolfensberger, W. (1977) A Balanced Multi-component Advocacy/protection Schema. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Association for the Mentally Retarded
Citizen Advocacy News. Citizen Advocacy NSW Association newsletter - issued quarterly
Citizen Advocacy Forum. PO Box 86 Beaver, PA 15009 Published quarterly with a variety of articles and ideas on Citizen Advocacy
TIPS. Newsletter of the Training Institute for Human Service Planning, Leadership & Change Agentry, 230 Euclid Avenue, Syracuse, New York 13244-5130
Local Programmes newsletters
A Credo for Support (5 minutes) - Axis Consultation & Training Ltd , Canada
Breaking Through - The Story of Norman and Tom (60 minutes)
Home of the Brave (31 minutes) - Australian Film Institute
Justice & the Art of Gentle Outrage (23 minutes)
Mission (11 minutes) - One To One Citizen Advocacy, Beaver Pennsylvania
Making A Difference (17 minutes) - Citizen Advocacy Northside.
Who Cares? Citizen Advocates Do! (23 minutes) - Citizen Advocacy City West.
Witness (16 minutes) - Australian Film Institute
The following is a description of different positive roles which can be exhibited in a group during a meeting. No one individual serves only in a single role. People may move in and out of several different roles during the same meeting. It is important that people understand and utilise these roles as they are helpful in facilitating a good meeting.
1. Seeker of information - asks questions and requests clarification.
2. Giver of information and clarifier - gives facts when needed and helps to clarify by restating problem or solution. Summarises points after discussion.
3. Harmoniser - brings together opposite points of view. Agrees with group while possibly adding a new dimension.
4. Encourager - makes members of group feel good and helps to make contributions. Acknowledges contributions and often agrees with the group.
5. Initiator - is the idea person and may propose new or alternative solutions. May suggest new process or procedure for group and is particularly helpful when group has reached a stalemate.
6. Coordinator - often combines ideas from several different factors. Pulls ideas and suggestions together and keeps groups apprised of what the other groups are doing. Clarifies relationships among ideas and factions.
7. Opinion giver - states own opinion or beliefs about a certain issue.
8. Evaluator - may question logic or practicality of a suggestion. Helps group to focus and be more realistic.
9. Group observer - usually stays out of groups proceedings but will give feedback as to what might be going on during the meeting. This person may keep records.
10. Energiser - urges group toward making a decision, returning to topic when group gets side tracked.
The following are some negative roles which individuals play in a group. It is important for people to recognise and try to avoid these behaviours.
1. Dominator - tries to take control and assert authority. Often interrupts others and monopolises conversation.
2. Aggressor - criticises others and attacks new ideas. Tries to get attention focused on themselves and often shows irritation or anger towards group.
3. Blocker - stubborn and rejects ideas of others. Argues frequently and is generally negative about most things.
4. Avoider - exhibits passive resistance. Withdraws from group and its activities and is indifferent and often involved in something other than the issue at hand.
Prepared by Citizen Advocacy NSW Association - December 1998
The following suggestion for writing the monthly Coordinators report to the Board is a way to simplify and clarify the process.
By basing the report on the seven key office activities which form the main focus of a coordinators work (but by no means the only work!) it helps:
to define and reinforce the staff role each month;
to give Board members a clear picture of the work staff do each month;
to assist Board members become familiar with the names and situations faced by protégés and citizen advocates;
to talk about the support given to relationships and the number of relationships supported each month;
to remind staff of how much of each activity is done each month and how much other activities are done by staff and need to balance the following month;
to give Board members examples of citizen advocate action to speak of when promoting Citizen Advocacy;
to make the writing of the report easier as the format on the computer can be updated and added to each month;
to remind us all of our reason for doing this work - for people with intellectual disability;
to monitor the time taken to match each protégé;
to have stories on hand for the quarterly reports to the funding body (from the advocate action narratives).
If the report is posted to Board members (with the Agenda etc.) prior to the meeting then people have a chance to read it and consider questions which saves time at the actual meeting. The question of confidentiality may be raised. However it should be understood that nothing in the information included would be disrespectful (see CAPE - Positive interpretation of people with disability) about the people involved and the report should focus on advocate action and staff action.
Total number of matches made by the Programme .......
Number of matches made by the Programme this year .......
Number of matches made by the Programme this month .......
Number of matches supported by the Programme this month .......
New people for whom we will recruit an advocate (Protégé recruitment)
Record the number of people recruiting for .......
Then for each person recruited:
Date of meetings with person, name, age, family information, living situation, abilities/strengths/gifts, type/range of disability, specific needs, present community support, any other pertinent information.
Specify specific role of potential advocate.
2/11, 9/11, 21/11 (dates of visits with protégé)
Sue is 7 years old and lives in Surry Hills with her grandmother and uncles. Her grandmother who is her devoted primary care giver is very ill and Sue is at risk of being sent to foster care. Sue attends the Crown Street Public School in a special education class. During our visit to Sues class nothing even vaguely educational happened for Sue. She has labels of severe intellectual disability, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury resulting from being abused at age 23 months. Sue has eloquent eyes. She likes music, bright colours and being included in social exchanges. She brings much joy to her grandmother.
We will recruit an advocate who knows people in the Surry Hills/Redfern/Paddington area and who will ensure that Sue stays in the community and challenge the education system to serve her well. Initially this will involve finding some suitable home support. Later it will mean making improvements in Sues education.
Record the total number of unmatched protégés .......
Repeat description (including dates of meetings) of each protégé as initially described in previous reports, with any updated information or changes in status.
For a person matched in the month the report covers, leave the narrative in and refer to Bringing people together (Matching).
Record the total number of people talked to about becoming an advocate .....
Provide description of potential advocate including name, skills and attributes, why being recruited and for whom, and outcome of invitation if issued yet (accepted, declined or need to consider further).
Record the total number of potential advocates who received orientation during the month ......
State name of each potential advocate and give a brief description of the content of orientation and likelihood of person being a suitable match.
Record the total number of matches this month ......
Name of protégé and advocate, date and brief narrative of match meeting and specific issues advocate has agreed to address. Include the first steps.
Diane has agreed to be Sues advocate. Diane believes she needs to empower and support Sues grandmother as much as possible to make things happen for Sue - rather than taking over totally. The first meeting was very positive for Sue, her grandmother and Diane. Diane has arranged to go to Sues class on open day and has invited Sue and her grandmother to her house for a meal. Diane plans to contact a friend in the education system to learn about what is available to Sue in class.
Record total number of advocates contacted during the month .....
Number of personal visits .....
Number of telephone calls .......
Support correspondence/material sent ......
Advocate action narratives:
Give a brief narrative report of at least 5-10 matches you have contacted. Choose a diversity of stories reflecting the reality of the relationships. Include stories which demonstrate good Citizen Advocacy, use of advocate-associates, matches which cause you concern, situations which are resolved and any unusual or innovative action. Define specific ways in which coordinator offered support in these situations, when applicable.
Diane has been experiencing a lot of difficulties and frustration in making arrangements to get together with Sues school principal and teacher to discuss Sues situation in class. We talked about this. Diane will take some time off work to fit in with the school for the meeting. Diane brought Sue and her grandmother to our November gathering despite difficulties with transport. We will recruit a person as a advocate-associate with skills in school inclusion and the administration.
Eric has become Jacks nominated payee with Social Security. Eric learned that two Social Security cheques in Jacks name were cashed in April while Jack was in hospital. Apparently someone in Jacks family forged his name and cashed the cheques. Eric has arranged a bank account for Jack and for his payments to be paid directly into the bank. Eric will budget with Jack and keep track of his money.
Record total number of matches that ended this month .....
Record total number of matches discontinued this month .....
State the names of the advocate and protégé involved, give a brief account of the reason the match has ended and define future plans if the protégé is to be rematched.
Describe gatherings for support or of specific value-based workshops, lectures, courses, meeting other advocates etc. attended by advocates, naming advocates attending.
Record the total number recruited and trained this month ......
Provide name, brief description of area of expertise and training received.
Number of advocates introduced to advocate-associates this month ......
Number of advocates using advocate-associates this month .......
List any community contacts, visits, workshops, events, information, Board business, administration issues etc. that you have undertaken this month.
Note any difficulties present or foreseeable and advice sought.
Prepared by Citizen Advocacy NSW Association - September 1998, updated July 1999
The Citizen Advocacy Board needs to consider who could be a potential board member.
To help us identify suitable people to approach this simple questionnaire will help the thought processes.
At our next board meeting everyone will be asked to report on their responses to the following simple questions . This will be used as the basis for identifying how and where we are going to find the board members we need.
What do you believe are the professional and/or management skills needed on the Board?
What do you believe are the personal attributes/qualities needed on the Board?
Please list the management and professional skills which you believe are currently represented on the Board?
Please list those personal attributes which you believe are currently represented on the Board?
Are there skills/attributes which are not represented on the Board which we should have? If so, what are they?
Identify one or more person/s who you believe have the skills and/or qualities which are needed on the Board?
Would you be willing to approach one or more of the above persons to discuss the role and responsibilities of Board members with them, with the view to exploring their interest in joining the Board?
The following questions are to help you think about how well management works.
The information is for your own use.
The Question mark (?) is a response if you don't know.
recruit new Board members to our Programme Y/N/?
provide orientation and training for new Board members Y/N/?
match Board members with different tasks according to their interests, skills and experience Y/N/?
have a range of people who have a range of skills, backgrounds & experience Y/N/?
have a structure of advisory committees or subcommittees Y/N/?
Board of Management members:
attend meetings regularly Y/N/?
all participate actively Y/N/?
know their legal obligations Y/N/?
understand their responsibilities of the Board of Management Y/N/?
participate in sub committees Y/N/?
understand the principles of Citizen Advocacy Y/N/?
have a good understanding of the common life experiences of people
with disabilities and how of Citizen Advocacy earn address issues Y/N/?
To help our Board of Management work better we could:
written aims or objectives Y/N/?
a written constitution or rules Y/N/?
policies and procedures on key office activities Y/N/?
clarity of staff role and responsibilities Y/N/?
What changes should we make to our rules and policies?
say who can be a member and how Y/N/?
say how our organisation is managed Y/N/?
say how our Board members are chosen Y/N/?
spell out membership, size, and terms of office for members Y/N/?
define the powers of the Board of Management Y/N/?
spell out the roles of office bearers Y/N/?
say how subcommittees operate Y/N/?
We can expand or develop our membership by:
What needs to be changed about our Board of Management?
Our meetings are:
regular and frequent enough (monthly) Y/N/?
at a time to suit most Board members Y/N/?
based on agendas and background papers distributed beforehand Y/N/?
minuted with minutes confirmed at the next meeting Y/N/?
sub committees meet regularly Y/N/?
receive written and verbal reports from paid workers Y/N/?
receive reports from subcommittees and task groups Y/N/?
follow established procedures for:
- making and recording decisions Y/N/?
- implementing decisions Y/N/?
focus on the heart of the Programme, i.e.. we have a good understanding of the protégé needs Y/N/?
delegate routine matters Y/N/?
allow discussion around issues which arise from relationships supported by the Programme Y/N/?
What decisions or issues should not be delegated to paid workers?
Our decisions are:
based on relevant facts presented to the Board Y/N/?
made after adequate debate, analysis and discussion by the Board Y/N/?
consistent with our policies and procedures Y/N/?
made before crisis situations develop Y/N/?
implemented and evaluated Y/N/?
We can improve meetings and decision making in our Programme by:
Our Board of Management:
allocates responsibility for financial management to the Treasurer Y/N/?
identifies the Board of Management as ultimately responsible for financial management Y/N/?
develops an annual budget Y/N/?
receives monthly financial reports which show both cash flow and financial performance against budget estimates Y/N/?
authorises payments or delegates authority to make expenditure to the Treasurer Y/N/?
signs or delegates authority to sign cheques to the Treasurer/Board Members and one staff member Y/N/?
arranges an annual external financial audit Y/N/?
authorises funding submissions and accepts grants Y/N/?
negotiate and signs funding or service agreements and meets requirements Y/N/?
plans to seek alternative funding sources Y/N/?
spends more time on legal and financial matters than on the work of the Programme (i.e. recruiting, matching etc.) Y/N/?
What changes need to be made to our financial management processes?
What do we need to learn about our financial responsibilities?
What plans do we have to diversify our funding situation?
has established planning and evaluation processes Y/N/?
participates in planning and policy for the CA NSW Association Y/N/?
establishes annual objectives which will meet our long term aims Y/N/?
measures our activities against these objectives Y/N/?
keeps records and statistics which show our achievements Y/N/?
has policies on confidentiality and conflict of interest Y/N/?
has policies to meet the requirements of our funders Y/N/?
What areas of our policies need updating?
In what areas do we need to develop new policies?
How can we improve our planning?
understands and is committed to CAPE Standards Y/N/?
has had a CAPE Evaluation in the last 2-3 years Y/N/?
is planning to have a CAPE Evaluation Y/N/?
has implemented recommendations from a CAPE Evaluation Y/N/?
undertakes internal relationship reviews Y/N/?
How do we learn about CAPE evaluations?
Who will plan for our next evaluation?
How will we fund our evaluation?
fosters links with all communities served by the Programme Y/N/?
promotes Citizen Advocacy to the wider community Y/N/?
is well-known in the local community Y/N/?
is respected and supported in the local community Y/N/?
has local community sponsorship Y/N/?
does fundraising Y/N/?
How do we want to be known in our community?
How else can we promote our Programme?
has clear roles for the Board of Management and paid workers Y/N/?
has a clear understanding of the key office activities Y/N/?
allocates responsibility for staffing issues Y/N/?
identifies the Board of Management as ultimately responsible for employing and managing paid workers Y/N/?
complies with industrial laws Y/N/?
spells out procedures for:
- staff selection Y/N/?
- orientation Y/N/?
- training Y/N/?
- support Y/N/?
- grievance and discipline procedures Y/N/?
- dismissal Y/N/?
has job descriptions for all paid workers Y/N/?
provides for paid workers and Board of Management member to work together on specific tasks Y/N/?
offers staff training Y/N/?
performs staff appraisal or reviews annually Y/N/?
We can improve our organisation's ability to attract and keep skilled workers by:
What changes need to be made to our employment policies or practices?
How could we improve the relationship between paid workers and the Board of Management?
Our Board of Management:
regularly reports to members and funders Y/N/?
keeps records required by law Y/N/?
maintains appropriate insurance cover Y/N/?
ensures proper maintenance of equipment, facilities and buildings Y/N/?
How can we improve our Annual General Meeting?
How can we improve our Annual Report?